Culture & Heritage

marcus_garvey_1924-08-05Jamaica is turning to black nationalist leader Marcus Garvey to inspire youth on the island according to David McFadden. Struggling with a chronically stagnant economy and an excessively high crime rate, Jamaica’s use of Garvey’s thought will hopefully instill in the students  a set of positive values and attitudes, as well as a stronger sense of identity and empowerment Garvey, who inspired millions of followers worldwide with messages of black pride and self-reliance, is being resurrected in a new mandatory civics program in schools across this predominantly black country of 2.8 million people. Following are excerpts of McFadden’s article:


Students from kindergarten through high school are supposed to learn values such as self-esteem, respect for others and personal responsibility by studying Garvey, whom Martin Luther King Jr. called the "first man on a mass scale and level to give Negroes a sense of dignity and destiny." [. . .] The program is a major rethinking of Garvey's legacy in his Caribbean homeland. He was the first person named a national hero following independence in 1962, and the government put his likeness on coins. But it had declined repeated calls to use his teachings in schools, where history is not a required subject.

"The teaching of Garveyism in schools is something that politicians of all stripes have shied away from partly because of their own intellectual ignorance and partly because they don't know what to make of this complex subject," said Robert Hill, a Garvey expert who is professor emeritus at the University of California, Los Angeles. But Jamaicans take great pride in the achievements of a native son who created an international movement. "We want all our children to believe they are important to what becomes of this country. Through Marcus Garvey, we see what it means ... to admit to no stumbling block that we cannot overcome," said Amina Blackwood Meeks, the Ministry of Education's culture director who led efforts to draft the Garvey-infused civics program.

[. . .] Born nearly 50 years after the abolition of slavery in Jamaica, Garvey founded the United Negro Improvement Association in 1914 on the island, and then built it into a mass movement in New York from 1919 to 1927. He established a network of "Liberty Halls" as venues for political debate, theater and scholarship around black themes, raising awareness of African achievements and calling for economic empowerment to circumvent racism. From his Harlem base, Garvey urged people find pride in their African history, and assured the descendants of slaves that there were no limitations to what they could accomplish. His Pan-African philosophy urged blacks to return to the continent of their ancestors and he launched the Black Star Line, a fleet of steamships intended to take them there.

[. . .] But in the early decades of the 20th century, when segregation was deeply implanted in the United States and when European colonialism still stretched around the world, Garvey's words also inspired civil rights figures in America, political leaders in Africa and the Rastafarian movement in Jamaica.

It's the uplifting and ambitious aspects of Garvey's life that educators hope will inspire youngsters in modern-day Jamaica, where times are tough for many. [. . .] "We have to use all tools and strategies at our disposal to tell our children and our people in general that, as Garvey said, the black skin is not a badge of shame, but rather a symbol of national greatness," said Verene A. Shepherd, director of the Institute for Gender and Development Studies at Jamaica's University of the West Indies. "If Jamaicans from very young are imbued with this kind of thinking, we will see the benefits in years to come."

For full article, see

arg_flagBlack Africans in Argentina

Have Afro-Argentines stopped being vanishing blacks, as Ebony Magazine called them back in 1973? Ebony editor Era Bell Thompson wrote, “What I found was not a viable, but a vanishing black people: relatively few in numbers, relatively free of racial discrimination and relatively content. Summarized by one gentleman, if there were more of us, perhaps it would be different."

But thirty-eight years later the attidute has changed. Descendants of slaves are starting to assert their identity. The Global post called it  'The reawakening of Afro-Argentine culture'. But that’s not easy in South America's whitest country. But restfull attidute has changes. Now, for the first time in a century and a half, Argentine descendants of African slaves are organizing and going public to assert their identity

“We've been exiled from the collective memory of Argentina,” said Juan Suaque, a seventh-generation descendant of Argentine slaves, in the Global post. “It's as if you pass someone in the street and you have to explain your whole life, what and who you are.”

At the beginning of the 1800s, black slaves were 30 percent of the population of Buenos Aires, and an absolute majority in some other provinces. The first president of Argentina had African ancestry, and so did the composer of the first tango. Even the word “tango,” like many other words common in the Argentine vocabulary, has an African root; so do many beloved foods, including the national vices of the asado barbecue and dulce de leche.

Below are some links and videos of the Afro-Argentines since they are part of the Black Diaspora, the history of Latin America and of course part of the history of Spain:

The must-read blog - AfroAmericanas
Organisation - Misibamba-Comunidad Afroargentina de Buenos Aires
Organisation - Disapora Africa de la Argentina


carib_artIn this article Casey Quinlan reports in The New York Daily News how the Caribbean art exhibit "Crossroads of the World' explores issues of identity, colonialism, race and slavery.

Is there such a thing as a “Caribbean identity?” If so, is it defined by a mentality, a landscape or a shared experience of colonialism?

The Queens Museum of Art has partnered with the Studio Museum and El Museo del Barrio in Harlem to explore that question. The museums are showcasing works from Trinidad to Puerto Rico, spanning centuries of artists both established and emerging in the exhibition, “Caribbean: Crossroads of The World.”

“We realized museums were tired of doing Caribbean shows that didn’t matter, that had no real result,” said Elvis Fuentes, associate curator at El Museo Del Barrio in Harlem. “We thought if three museums can’t do a historical show that’s never been done, then who will?”

Fuentes spearheaded the project, which took several years to complete. What has emerged is an eclectic show that features craft pieces, such as costumes and oars, along with serious works from painter Armando Reveron and photographer Leo Matiz.

“There is this discussion of, ‘What is the Caribbean?’” said Tom Finkelpearl, the executive director of the Queens Museum of Art. “Is it the ocean, or a sensibility? We ended up with a broad definition.”

To delve into the many components of Caribbean identity, the exhibit abandons traditional linear concepts of organization. Instead, rough intuitive sketches of eels, fish and conch shells are displayed alongside more traditional landscapes featuring crashing waves and cloudy skies.

By grouping disparate pieces, the curators said they were trying to help tease out the similarities that make these works distinctly Caribbean.

Likewise, though each museum focuses on distinct aspects of Caribbean life, the exhibit considered in its entirety can be regarded as a cogent whole.

El Museo’s exploration of “Counterpoints” traces the legacy of the region’s slave plantations, exploring their impact on its social hierarchy; works under the rubric “Patriot Acts” address themes of Caribbean identity.

Works on display at the Studio Museum speak to the idea of the Caribbean as a land of the outlaw — one occupied by pirates and treasure seekers. Works grouped under the rubric “Shades of History” explore the region’s deeply complicated constructs of race.

The Queens Museum of Art is highlighting the “Fluid Motion” that seems omnipresent in a region composed of islands in the sea; “Kingdoms of the World” will trace the development of Caribbean religious traditions.

The exhibition runs through Oct. 21 at the Studio Museum, and until Jan. 6 at El Museo del Barrio and the Queens Museum of Art. An admission purchased at any venue confers access to all three. For more information, visit

Photo credit: Jaime Colson - Merengue" at Queens Museum of Art

For the original report go to ad more:

  • chained_Slaves

The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade in numbers:


Some 12.5million captives were taken from Africa to the Americas:   

- 5.7m from West Central Africa (modern Angola, both Congos and Gabon) and St. Helena

- 2m from Bight of Benin (modern Benin, Togo and Nigeria)

- 1.7m from Bight of Biafra (modern Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe)

- 1.3m from Gold Coast (modern Ghana)

- 756,000 from Senegambia (modern Senegal and The Gambia) and off-shore Atlantic

- 543,000 from South-east Africa and Indian Ocean islands

- 389,000 from Sierra Leone

- 337,000 from Windward Coast (modern Liberia and Ivory Coast)



In total nearly 10.7m enslaved Africans were disembarked, most in the Americas:

  • Main Destinations:

- Brazil (5.5m)

- British Caribbean (2.8m)

- Spanish Americas (1.7m)

- French Caribbean (1.3m)

- Dutch Americas (514,000)

- Mainland North America (472,000)

- Danish West Indies (130,000)

Source Data: Estimates from The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database


Photo credit: (t), (c) Rastasurvival, (b)Voice of Detroit

Carib"In a backwoods town along a river cutting between green mountains, quick-footed men and women spin and stomp to the beat of drums. One dancer waving a knife is wrapped head-to-foot in leafy branches, his flashing eyes barely visible through the camouflage," writes David McFadden in Business Week.

This traditional dance re-enacts the Jamaican Maroons' specialty: the ambush. It was once a secret ritual of the fierce bands of escaped slaves who won freedom by launching raids on planters' estates and repelling invasions of their forest havens with a mastery of guerrilla warfare.

But on this day, descendants of those 18th century fugitives are performing for tourists, academics, filmmakers and other curious outsiders in a fenced "Asafu" dancing yard in Charles Town, a once-moribund Maroon settlement in eastern Jamaica that seemed destined to lose its traditions until revivalists gradually brought it back.

Maroons in the Caribbean are increasingly showcasing their unique culture for visitors in hopes that heritage tourism will guarantee jobs for the young generation and preserve what remains of their centuries-old practices in mostly remote settlements. The basic idea has been tried around the world, from the Gusii people of Kenya to the artisans of the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina.

"If we don't follow in the footsteps of our foreparents we will find ourselves on the heap of history," said Wallace Sterling, the "colonel" of the Windward Maroon community of Moore Town. It is one of Jamaica's four semi-autonomous Maroon tracts, each governed by an elected colonel, a title bestowed on Maroon leaders since their battles with the British army, and a council appointed by the leader.

Trying to counter the endless tide of migration and assimilation, long secretive Maroons are more and more going public with the old ways — singing sacred songs, drumming, making herbal medicine, talking to ancestral spirits, woodcarving, hunting and "jerking" wild pigs. Maroons are credited with inventing Jamaica's "jerk" style of cooking, in which aromatic spices are rubbed or stuffed into meat before it is roasted on an open fire.

The turn to small-scale tourism for income can safeguard the Maroons' future and their cultural identity, leaders say. They say it has boosted pride among younger Maroons and encouraged some to stay in their rural hometowns. Other money-making opportunities are scarce in the communities of modest cement-block homes and tiny shops selling cold drinks and snacks.

"For a long time, it's been very difficult to keep the young people because they tend to leave for the cities to seek work. But now we can train tour guides and our people can sell their crafts, their banana and coconuts," said Fearon Williams, the colonel of Accompong. An annual Jan. 6 celebration draws thousands of visitors to the isolated town, which sits among rocky cliffs and limestone towers in northwestern Jamaica. "Tourism is making us stronger."

A tour bus now comes weekly to Charles Town, a village whose colonel, Frank Lumsden, worked as a commodities trader in Chicago before returning to Jamaica in the late 1990s to focus on his ancestral roots.

There are also Maroons in Suriname, on the South American mainland, where escaped slaves over the centuries built their own African-centered societies in sparsely populated Amazonian forests. Suriname's Maroons also say a broadening emphasis on ecotourism is helping fight cultural disintegration.

"The world is turning into one large village, so it makes no sense for Maroon villages to keep out tourists. Tourists and the money they bring stimulate people in the Maroon communities to produce the products that represent their culture," said Ronny Asabina, a Maroon who serves in Suriname's legislature.

But most acknowledge the obstacles facing Maroons, who are estimated to number in the thousands in Jamaica and the tens of thousands in Suriname. The passing along of traditions and customs from one generation to the next has long been weakened by the lures and necessities of modern life.

In Scott's Hall, a subsistence farming community in eastern Jamaica, longtime colonel Noel Prehay said he hopes tourism can provide a place for many of his townspeople to relearn their traditions.

Prehay said devotion to clandestine spiritual rituals is strong among the town's ever-dwindling number of elderly residents, as is their knowledge of the Maroon's Kromanti language, which is closely related to the Twi spoken in parts of the West African nation of Ghana.

"If a person is mad or if they are sick, we can make a healing dance. Our Obeah is a good Obeah," Prehay said, referring to an Afro-Caribbean religion that involves channeling spiritual forces and is feared by some in Jamaica's countryside, where superstitions about shamanism and the occult run deep.

Carib_maroonsBut visitors are very rare in his poor town along a dusty, rutted road about a 45-minute drive from Jamaica's capital, Kingston. Unlike the other three Maroon communities in Jamaica, Scott's Hall has no museum, dancing grounds or other attractions aimed at tourists.

So Prehay worries that most young Maroons will still continue to leave.

"I think the young people are willing and ready to accept the teaching of the culture. But the continual migration to Kingston, to London, to Canada is difficult," the 70-year-old Prehay said, pointing to surrounding slopes that were farms when he was a young man but are now overgrown with bamboo.

Settlements of escaped slaves emerged in many places in the Western Hemisphere, including the U.S., but the Maroons' biggest success came in Jamaica, where they helped the British expel the Spanish and then turned on the new rulers, wreaking havoc across an island that was then one of the world's largest sugar producers.

The Maroons' name derives from the Spanish word "cimarron," which means "untamed" or "the wild ones." Descendants of the warrior Ashanti and Fante tribes of West Africa, the Maroons became adept at surviving in tangled forests in the mountains.

Jamaica's Maroons avoided open warfare, relying on their knowledge of the terrain, camouflaging themselves with leaves and communicating with the abeng, a cow horn whose call carries for miles.

After nearly a century of fighting, the British finally granted the Maroons formal freedom in a 1739 treaty signed in a cave a few miles outside Accompong by legendary Maroon leader Cudjoe and British army Col. John Guthrie.

But in return for their autonomy, the Maroons agreed to help the British hunt down future runaway slaves. That arrangement may be at the root of a sense of isolation some Maroons felt from other Jamaicans and long kept them living apart. Maroon separatism began to fade with the ebbing of colonialism in Jamaica, which became independent in 1962.

Not all Maroons are confident that relying on tourism can successfully bring back cultural traditions.

"It will take a giant effort if you can find the will. I am not sure that the will is there," said C.L.G. Harris, a highly respected 95-year-old who was Moore Town's colonel for decades and worked hard to modernize the community — sometimes, he says, at the expense of traditional religious practices.

Anthropologist Kenneth Bilby, whose book "True-Born Maroons" is based on years of research, much of it conducted while living in Moore Town in the 1970s, said it remains to be seen whether heritage tourism can preserve indigenous communities.

"It's really quite a complex question whether or not communities can try to develop aspects of their culture and commodify them without also suffering certain losses or negative consequences," Bilby said from his home in Colorado. Some experts fear that cultural tourism can introduce harmful influences or can make communities into parodies of themselves.

Still, the message of cultural identity is reaching some young Maroons.

"What I've learned is that without the culture, you're nothing," said Rodney Rose, Charles Town's 29-year-old abeng blower and museum treasurer who until recently had to travel outside the village for employment. "And while we young Maroons are learning, people from overseas can also learn."

Photo; (b) David Mc Fadden

The original report is at

jamaica_sprint_athleteIn an interview with the Daily Mail, Olympic legend Michael Johnson says a ‘superior athletic gene’ in the descendants of West African slaves means black American and Caribbean sprinters will command the sport at the London Games.

The Olympic gold medallist and BBC commentator said: ‘Over the last few years, athletes of Afro- Caribbean and Afro-American descent have dominated athletics finals.

‘It’s a fact that hasn’t been discussed openly before. It’s a taboo subject in the States but it is what it is. Why shouldn’t we discuss it?’

Some scientists believe a combination of selective breeding by slave owners and appalling conditions meant that only the strongest slaves endured, creating a group predisposed to record-breaking athletic performance.
African slaves underwent a rigorous selection process and only the fittest were transported on ships.

Interestingly, the toughest journey was to Jamaica, the last stop on the slave trail. Taboo: Usain Bolt was born in Trelawny Parish, Jamaica, where British Olympic boss Lord Coe's plantation-owning ancestor George Hyde Park had 297 slaves. During one voyage in 1732, a staggering 96 per cent of slaves lost their lives – 170 boarded the ship and only six got off.

Jamaican geneticist Dr Rachael Irving said: ‘There was not much oxygen on slave ships so they had to use whatever they had to survive.’

Photo: Yohan Blake

Dr Herb Elliott, doctor to the Jamaican Olympic team, added: ‘Only the most aggressive and fiercest slaves ended up in Jamaica.’

Source: Afro-Europe

Read full story at:


Building on the success of the inaugural 2011 conference, the second annual convention of the Black German Cultural Society of New Jersey (BGCSNJ) will be held at Barnard College in New York City on August 10-11, 2012. This year’s convention will focus on the theme of “What Is the Black German Experience?” The conference will feature a keynote address by Yara Colette Lemke Muniz de Faria, screenings of the films “Hope in My Heart: The May Ayim Story” and “Audre Lorde – The Berlin Years 1984-1992,” and readings by Black German poet-performers Olumide Popoola and Philipp Kabo Köpsell.

In response to recent interest, the BGCSNJ Review Committee has expanded the scope of the conference and invites proposals for papers that engage the diverse histories, experiences and cultural productions of Blacks of German heritage and blackness in Germany and Europe more broadly. We welcome submissions for twenty-minute presentations on three academic panels. Additionally, two panels will be devoted to life writing, oral history and memoir. These two panels will provide a forum for the work of collecting individual accounts and reflections, as well as raising awareness on the overlooked life histories of blacks of Germany heritage and blackness in a wider European context. For more information, visit

black_mag_germanyBLACK! Life Style Magazine is a German magazine that focuses directly on a broad range of afro-related lifestyle topics. As the title suggests BLACK! addresses everyone who can identify themselves with afro-culture or consider it a vital part of their lifestyle. However, BLACK! also speaks to everyone who is interested in afro culture and would like to learn more about it.

BLACK! was founded by German editor Heike Kankam-Boadu, whose parents are from Ghana in West Africa and was first and foremost a pilot project which started as an internet platform in early 2011, featuring video interviews on BLACK! TV, articles and picture shows around fashion, beauty and many more.

With the growing interest and the demand for a printed version of the web portal, the first high gloss print edition of BLACK! was published in May 2012 and is sold in several afro shops in Hamburg, Berlin, Bremen, Munich and Cologne.

There are many lifestyle magazines on the German market but none of these truly take into account the large and growing afro- German community with its different interests, cultures, fashion, music and political issues. People with an African heritage, that could be afro-Caribbean, afro- Latino, afro-German and others, are underrepresented in most European media and the majority of European lifestyle magazines tend to feature more fair skinned models than black models.
Furthermore the majority of the westernized media give a one sided portrayal of the African culture and many still see Africa as one big country where poverty and dying children are the daily routine.

There are many ‘black’ role models in our community which are not necessarily only singers and sports personalities and we aim to show and introduce our readers to as many positive role models as possible. Furthermore, we believe there is a need to show how the vibrant afro culture has evolved and has been adopted and inherited by the mainstream fashion and music world. African culture is striving and rising up daily and BLACK! will bring a piece of the continents evolution to our readership.

As of yet there has not been a magazine in Germany that addresses the afro- German culture and focuses on the ‘black lifestyle’ so many have made a key part of their life.

BLACK! is unique as it is the first ‘black’ magazine of its kind on the German market and we are striving to fully represent the large afro- German community and the African Diaspora worldwide in all its shapes and colours and put a stamp on the German media map.

BLACK! has a multicultural team of volunteers with the majority of them having coming from an African- heritage. Our volunteers are based in the biggest metropolitan cities such as Hamburg, Berlin, Munich, Cologne, London, Cape Town and further which allows us to bring our readers different afro cultures and lifestyles and at the same time enables us to constructively exchange our experiences and ideas.

We at BLACK! LifeStyle Magazine believe that a magazine for the afro- German community and its friends is well overdue and we hope that in future we will reach an even larger audience to show them how present the afro- German community really is. The website: is

Source: Afro-Europe 

debbie_allenNow you can learn to move like celebrity dance legend and Debbie Allen. Dallas Black Dance Theatre (DBDT) has joined forces with the talented staff of the Debbie Allen Dance Institute to offer a three week intensive study workshop at the studios of DBDT.  For $500, your young dancer can train with some of the country's best master teachers in the disciplines of Ballet, Modern, Tap, Hip Hop and African Dance. Class sizes are limited so get your enrollment forms in early.  Classes will be available for students aged 8-21. Prior dance training is required.  

 In addition, DBDT will offer two additional dance programs for advanced dancers and beginners.  Advanced dancers can train with master teachers from across the country.  And beginners will enjoy classes offered by the Academy as an extension of training offered during the season.  These classes are more intense  and designed to further develop the skills of the young dancer.


Classes will be offered in the discipline of ballet, modern, hip hop, tap and African dance.  Madame Adrienne Dellas-Thornton, master teacher with over 40 years experience returns to Dallas to lead the program.  Total cost for the three week intensive is $500.  Payment is due by May 21, 2012.  All registrations forms can be found on the DBDT website at

luxAs official sponsors and co-partner, AfricAvenir attended the 1st edition of the Luxor African Film Festival, held in Egypt from 21 to 28 February 21.

AfricAvenir is proud to be associated to this festival. We take our hats off to the organizers of this first edition of the festival and we wish the festival all the best of luck for future editions.  The festival successfully made its mark in the African Film Festival circus and can be congratulated for its overall achievements. The mission of the festival was a clear Pan-African one, and this was, without doubt, achieved. The Pan-African vision was omnipresent.

After being separated from the rest of the continent for decades, Egypt opened itself up to the rest of the continent and welcomed films from more than 25 African countries. Most filmmakers from the participating countries attended. Furthermore festival directors and programmers of Durban International Film Festival (South Africa), New York African Film Festival (USA), Festival Cine Africano Tarifa (Spain), International Images Film Festival for Women (Zimbabwe), Abu Dhabi Film Festival (United Arabic Emirates), Trois-Continentes Festival Nantes (France), International Mediterranean Film Festival for Short and Documentaries (Libya), Festival du Cinema Africain de Khouribga (Morocco), and African Perspectives (Namibia) honoured the festival and hence welcoming Luxor African Film Festival amongst its midst.

Egypt’s desire to reunite with Africa was expressed throughout the festival. Observing the attendance and the wide range of participating filmmakers, festival directors, programmers, and the composition of the jury, one can only say, that aim was achieved. Underlining this was the presence of the Minister of Culture, Mr. Shakir’ Abd Il-Hameed, the Governor of Luxor, Dr. Ezzat Sa’d, and nine African Ambassadors accredited to Egypt, who travelled from Cairo to attend the opening ceremony at the Luxor Temple.

The festival paid tribute to the Egyptian director Daoud Abdel-Sayed and Ethiopian director Haile Gerima, who both attended the festival and both received lifetime awards.

In the words of Haile Gerima, who received his lifetime achievement award at the closing ceremony held on Tuesday, 28 February, the festival fulfilled the dream of Egyptian president Gamal Abd al-Nasser to unite Egypt with the rest of the continent. Gerima had been waiting for this opening a lifetime and finally is seeing it being achieved. The festival certainly plays a pivotal role in this pan-African vision of Egypt newly found political energy. Haile_Gerima_Tribute_Award_Acceptance_Speech_XIX_Email


At the closing ceremony, attended by the Governour of Luxor, the following winners were announced:

For long feature and long documentary films:

-      Best Film: “Soul Boy” (2010, Kenya/Germany), directed by Hawa Essuman, awarded with the Greater Nile Award and the Golden Mask of Tutankhamun and a cash prize of 10.000,- USD

-      Special Jury Award: “Our Beloved Sudan” (2011, Sudan), directed by Taghreed El Sanhouri, awarded with the  Silver Mask of Tutankhamnun and a cash prize of 8.000,- USD

-      Best Artistic Contribution: “Born on the 25th of January” (2011, Egypt), directed by Ahmed Rashwan, awarded with the Bronze Mask of Tutankhamnun and a cash prize of 5.000,- USD

The jury for this category consisted of Abdelrahamane Sissako (Mauretania), Hend Sabri (Tunisia), and Mohamed Khan (Egypt).

 In the category short fiction and short documentary the awards went to the following:

-      Greater Nile Award for Best Short Film: “Short Life” (2010, Morocco), directed by Adil El Fadili, awarded with the Golden Mask of Tutankhamnun and a cash prize of 5.000,- USD

-      Jury Prize for Best Short Film: “The Cry of the Dove” (2010, Niger/France), directed by Sani Elhadji Magori, awarded with the Silver Mask of Tutankhamnun and a cash prize of 4.000,- USD

-      Prize for Best Artistic Contribution: “The Bottom of the Pit” (2011, Tunisia), directed by Moez Ben Hassen, awarded with the Bronze Mask of Tutankhamnun and a cash prize of 3.000,- USD

-      Special prizes for first short film went jointly to: “Living Skin” (2010, Egypt), directed by Fawzi Saleh, and to “The Cassava Metaphor” (2011, Cameroon), directed by Lionel Meta, which both were awarded a cash prize of 2000,- USD

The jury for the short film/documentary category consisted of Fanta Regina Nacro (Burkina Faso), Mustafa Al-Mesnaoui (Morocco), and Mama Keïta (Senegal).

Photo: Ethiopian Director Haile Gerima who received Lifetime Achievement Award