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I didn’t know what to expect. I was paranoid about being bitten by a bug, any bug and contracting malaria. cialis onlineI muttered every other minute of the day as the time drew near for me to board that long flight to Ghana.  I was nervous and excited and curious.  It was 2007 and my first trip to the 'Motherland.'  Though I could tell them a few things about our collective histories, there was nothing anyone could have possibly said to prepare me for the experience I shall not soon forget.

As we approached Kotoka International Airport, I was reminded of a scene from the Color Purple when Celie met her adult children after having been separated from them their whole life. Her son Adam walked towards her with his arms outstretched and said “Mamma.” I felt much like Adam did because the reality of my very being would be redefined the moment my feet touched the ground.

My 'Sankofa'  moment was nigh. (Sankofa (san-co-fah) is an Akan word that means to “go back and take what was lost, stolen or forgotten). After the plane landed, the cabin aisles quickly filled with anxious passengers ready to disembark.  My group patiently yielded to Ghanaians who were almost running to get off the plane for many of them had not been home in years and were eager to see their loved ones and the familiar places they knew as children—the emotional comforts of being home. When it was my time to leave, I savored every step I took while walking down the airstairs.

As I neared the bottom rung, my eyes began to swell as I thought of my scattered ancestors who cried themselves to sleep at night wishing they could be back in a familiar place; those whose hearts were forever torn by the slave trade and finally those who fought so that I could even get on a plane. As timing would have it, when the first foot dropped, so did the first tear. cialis online: I have come back to take what belongs to me.

My mission for Ghana was clear: visit with our sister city in Prince’s Town, assess the humanitarian needs, identify potential office space to establish a genealogy research center, and to take some DNA samples from unrelated men and women in the village.  

PICT1_copyAfter about 4 days of touring the rest of Ghana, we finally arrived in Prince’s Town.  We were greeted by a large sign welcoming us and what seemed like the entire town of 3,000.  The girls were signing and rhythmically walking to the beat of the drum as they lead us to the King for an official welcome. The official welcome included the pouring of alcohol into the ground. Now, I had seen this growing up but it was always preceded by “this is for the brotha’s who ain’t here.”  We didn’t have a name for it but they call it “libations.” As a genealogist, the libations ceremony was the first opportunity I had to culturally link our ancestors with our distant relatives.

The second opportunity came when I visited the fort where some 300,000 Africans were transported into the slave trade with a final destination of Jamaica. Fort Friedrichsburg sits atop Manfro Hill and is the only German fort built in Ghana. The view from the center of town makes the towering stone structure look exceptionally cold and intimidating. The gentle ocean breeze from the veranda, however, and the view of miles upon miles of white sandy beaches lined with coconut trees and crystal clear water allow you to forget that just ten feet below is a cemetery where countless Africans died fighting to protect their sovereignty or where those who refused to go through the door of no return were buried. It was a sobering revelation.

A huge celebration and feast had been prepared for us. I was made to dance alone in the middle of a circle of girls at least 25 years my junior.  To their surprise I had the natural rhythmic inclinations as they did, only I didn’t have the longevity to keep up, and we all know that longevity has its place. When the dance was over for me, the girls quickly regrouped and formed what I identified as the SoulTrain line. Remember that? We still do this today at reunions, weddings, birthday parties and any other occasion where six or more Black folks are gathered. Coincidence? I think not. With the exception of a few, this was the first time they had ever seen what they call Black Americans. Little did they know, I have seen and experienced them all my life and didn’t even know it was them. 

The sun had begun to set when we were quickly moved to a room and instructed to change our clothes. As I watched my co-travelers put on these beautiful, vibrant outfits, I was wondering if someone had forgotten me.  Then a woman came to me and said, “I will help you now.” Out of a large bag she pulled out some kente cloth, sandals, rings, necklace and bracelet. I was completely distinguished from the others and very much African-authenticated.  Officially validated and accepted by my own, I was ready to move on to collecting DNA samples.

It took some time, but we were finally able to identify some unrelated men and women in the village to participate in the Sankofa Project pilot.  Our translators did a fine job of explaining what I was trying to accomplish and why it was important that they participate. The subjects willingly allowed me to invade their personal space by taking 3 buccal swabs and scraping the insides of their mouths.  In three minutes and six weeks time, we would have results.

I was astonished at the results of the sampling. There were many matches for some but only two for one: the King. Nana Ndama Kundumuah IV had two matches. The irony is that all three matches were men who took the mtDNA (maternal) tests. I informed the two African-American men that their results were linked to the King and gave them some history of the town and the Nzema people for which their results said they belonged.

On November 17, 2008, Nana Kudumuah IV flew to Virginia to meet one of his distant relatives: Howard L. Robertson, Jr. of Memphis, Tennessee. At the Atonement & Reconciliation ceremony, Nana performed the traditional rites for any new chief. Because the two men share a common female ancestor (within the past 14 generations), Robertson was made a chief and thus, in line to ascend to the stool. The event culminated everything I had set out to do since founding CAAGRI in 2004: to restore the African family torn apart by slavery.

Empowered by the results and the possibilities of reconnecting more families, we launched the Sankofa Project at the Public Records and Archives Administration Department (PRAAD) in Ghana on November 30, 2009. There we took some 250 samples from men belonging to the ethnic groups that were known to have willingly/unwillingly participated in the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: Ga, Fante, Ewe, Asante and Nzema. The women were understandably not pleased with the announcement that only men would be tested but as I explained to them how DNA worked, they quickly summoned their brothers, fathers, husbands and sons to PRAAD for testing.  Simply put: Men inherit both paternal and maternal DNA whereas women only inherit the maternal chromosomes. To achieve the greatest possible yield of results, we had to focus on men.

In doing this, we have doubled the findings to 500 thereby increasing the possibilities for African-Americans who have already been tested to have matches. This historic launching continues to do what others have either failed to do or costs were prohibitive in doing, and that is to build a comparative database of African DNA. Until this project, there simply weren’t enough samples in any number of shared DNA databases that would identify specific individuals of African descent to their distant relatives. Moreover, never before had anyone gone to any country in Africa and performed these tests in the quantities with supporting documentation that we did.

We now have an office in Prince’s Town where people can go and record their family history so that as the DNA results come in, we can begin to compare archival records and oral histories in conjunction with DNA findings.  This information is being stored in a database of which most will be made available to the public in about six months assuming we can maintain electricity on a regular basis.

The project has been such a huge success that we have been able to collect samples in Angola with the forward thinking objective to establish there, as in Ghana, the only African genealogy research center. Officials of the government of Angola agree with us—“it is fitting.”

The migration of Africans off the continent was largely involuntary and our histories were lost, stolen and forgotten as a result. Science, technology and access are keys to recovering those things that meant something to our ancestors and should, likewise, mean something to us.  

I am a woman whose roots grow on top of the ground.  So while I may never find the origins of my maternal Fulani ancestor, I do know that it is her spirit that keeps calling me back in search of her. With each visit I find myself looking far more deeply into the passing faces on the street carrying their yams to market or the front desk clerk checking me in to the hotel wondering if she could help me find the place called home.


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